Grammar Series -(이)나, Part 3

Part 3 of the -(이)나 grammar series will cover the usage of indicating that something or someone includes all of the choices. To return to the series index click here. An understanding of Part 1 of this series is required for this lesson.

When 나 is attached to a word in this usage that word becomes all of the possible things in that context. In this usage 나 is used with the who (구누), what (거), where (어디), when(언제) words. When used together they become 누구나 (anyone/everyone), 아무거나 (anything/everything), 어디서나 (anywhere/everywhere), 언제나 (anytime/all the time)

exampleanalytical translation
인간은 누구나 평등하다As for humans, anyone/everyone is equal.
누구나 다 알지Anyone/everyone knows
이일은 아무나 할 수 있는 일이 아니다This work is not something that can be done by (just) anyone
우리 강아지가 길에서 아무거나 주워 먹어서 걱정이다We’re worried because our dog picks up and eats (just) anything off the street.
이시간에 어디나 사람이 많다At this time there are lots of people everywhere
그 자동차는 어디서나 볼 수 있는 차다This is a car that can be seen anywhere/everywhere
어디서나 할 수 있는 게임 좋아요A game I can play anywhere/everywhere is good
여기 언제나 맛있다Its delicious here anytime/everytime
언제나 놀러와요Come anytime

Recall in Part 1 나 was used to list options with the meaning that whichever the option, it doesn’t matter? We can apply the same interpretation the these examples. Whilst there is only one option listed here, they cover all the possible choices so it is the same as listing two or more options when it doesn’t matter which one it is. The sentences above are altered slightly in the table below to demonstrate.

examplealternative
인간은 누구나 평등하다인간은 너나 나나 누구나 평등하다
우리 강아지가 길에서 아무거나 주워 먹어서 걱정이다우리 강아지가 길에서 음식이나 아무거나 주워 먹어서 걱어이다
이시간에 어디나 사람이 많다이시간에 여기나 저기나 어디나 사람이 많다
여기 언제나 맛있다여기 월요일이나 화요일이나 언제나 맛있다

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